Geography of Religion Wk 8

Revival and Spread

  • Gupta Empire ending ~600 AD–Hinduism became a little more subdued with Buddhism and Islam more prominent
  • 16-18th century India was ruled by the Mughul Empire
  • 1644 English Company built Fort Saint George and established city of Madras
  • 1661 British acquired islands in a western bay south of Surat
  • 1674 Bombay became the HQ of East India Trading Company
  • 1702 Fort William was built near the mouth of the Hulgi River on the East Coast
  • (Village Kalikata became Calcutta)
  • This all formed the beginnings of modern India
  • Hinduism played a key role in India’s 20th century movement
  • Movement was embodied by Mohandas Gandhi who was devoted to the lifestyle of a sadhu
  • Lived austerely and preached non-violence and was devoted to helping the people of India regain their independence
  •  He focused on salt which was controlled by the British
  • 1804 proclamation (by the EIC)  banned private harvest or trade of Orissa salt which resulted in starvation and epidemics for the Indians who depended on the salt harvest and trade for their income
  • The British cleared  jungle land in Southern Bengal for wood and therefore fuel which aided the occurrence of a massive famine in Orissa in 1866
  • 1930 Gandhi held the Salt March which was both religious and political and covered 240 miles and took 25 days
  • The march started in Sabarmati Ashram. Gandhi and 78 others village-hopped in a salt satyagraha (aka a grasping of the truth)
  • By the time the march ended on April 6, at Dandhi–at the edge of the Arabian Sea–thousands of people had joined Gandhi in his march
  • The protest was filled with extremely symbolic acts and it sparked violence
  • The leaders of the march were imprisoned but the demonstrations continued
  • 1931 the British finally ended their salt campaign
  • In 1947 India had it’s independence but there were more troubles such as the separation of India into a majorly Hindu state and a majorly Muslim state (Pakistan) where a million people were killed in riots and 7 million people were displaced
  • Gandhi was assassinated in 1948
  • Some other protesting and separation stuff happened but Imma go eat pizza. Hope you learned some stuff. Enjoy your day :)

 

CWP Wk 9

LSD

  • 1938 Chemist Albert Hoffman searching for a compound that would stimulate blood flow
  • 25th ergot derivative–lysergic acid diethylamide which became LSD 25
  • let the compound touch his unloved hand and experienced the worlds first acid trip
  • decided to experiment on himself and swallowed 250 micro grams–very potent. (had a bad trip)
  • Warner Stoll published a report on LSD in 1949 or around thereabouts
  • came to the attention of the CIA–wanted a mind control drug
  • Project Bluebird was the combined project to create this mind control drug
  • The next year it was reformed as project artichoke
  • 1953 MK Ultra was sanctioned by CIA to perform further studies on the public and fellow agents with LSD.
  • Agents literally just pranking each other by slipping each other LSD and watching them acid trip
  • George Hunter Wight was a pretty evil person
  • Moved base of operations to San Francisco. operation Midnight climax. Hired prostitutes and got them to go to bars and dose innocent civilians (men) with LSD. At night they partied with LSD and prostitutes. This went on for 8 years
  • (these are MK Ultra projects)
  • He had a hell of a lot of fun “lie kill cheat still rape and pillage” with the sanction of
  • Loretta Bilder kept prepubescent children high on LSD for weeks at a time because they wanted to study “how children communicated”
  • creepiest doctor was Deu Cameron who was obsessed with schitzophrenia
  • frequently ordered experimental lobotomies on patients with only mild anesthetic so he could document their reactions
  • Linda McDonald was referred to him for mild depression and mild back pain
  • 25 years old. married and with 5 children. diagnosed with acute schitzophrenia
  • transferred to “sleep room” from 86 days
  • administered 102 electroshock treatments in that time
  • treatment reduced her to an infantile state. no memory. even had to be toilet trained again
  • I HATE DEU CAMERON WITH A FLAMING PASSION AND WOULD LIKE TO RIP HIM TO SHREDS IF HE WERE STILL ALIVE

US History Lecture #28

North Over South: Recreating the Union, Part II

  • General end date for reconstruction 1877 but arbitrary–federal gov promised to withdraw troops from the South
  • West and North as well as South
  • Republican party had no check on dominance
  • 1866 crush democrats in election
  • still remaking the US. The idea has been around since the reconstruction
  • 1867 republicans pass first reconstruction act
  • congress kicked southern states out of the union even though they said that it was illegal and not possible for south to succeed from the union
  • Tennessee was the only state that stayed in the union (placed under Marshall law and suspended civil courts)
  • “conquered provinces” now
  • north doesn’t care about constitution. just remaking the union and seriously making south suffer BTW
  • Black majorities in South in terms of voting majority
  • republicans now trying to get rid of Johnson (first impeached cuz he broke a law that congress passed)
  • (he had been vetoing congresses acts)
  • later he was vindicated by the admission that the trial was just a witch hunt
  • but at the time, republicans were just going wild
  • most egregious violation of the constitution at the time was the 14th amendment
  • ratified 1868–former confederate states required to ratify it
  • said states no longer have control over citizenship
  • Increase in black political participation 1868-1871
  • misconception about Ku Klux Klan
  • went after scalawags. white southerners and white people who had moved to south and were enforcing south reconstruction

CWP Wk 8

Discrimination vs. Discrimination

Discrimination is defined as “recognition and understanding of the difference between one thing and another.” This is not a bad thing. When you order something off of the menu in a restaurant, you are discriminating between foods. However, in modern culture, the word “discrimination” is taken to mean unjust treatment of certain people based on their lifestyle, religion, or appearance. Unfortunately, these two definitions can be easily confused.

Let’s start with a classic example of perceived racism. Your car has broken down and you need a ride. There are two people about to get into cars and you must ask one for a ride home. The first person is a young, clean-shaven, white man in a suit. The second is a tattooed, pierced, black teen whose pants sag to his knees. Most people would obviously choose the white man in the suit. Why? The easy answer might seem to be “because he is white” but this is not the case at all. If we reverse the skin colors of the men, most everyone would immediately choose the black man in the suit. The preference of which man to approach has nothing to do with skin color but how the men present themselves. This demonstrates how perceived racism commonly has nothing to do with natural appearance but how the individuals act. A specific set of features also indicates a certain culture and it is this culture someone may find unsavory, not the color of the person’s skin.

Now let’s introduce a bit of perceived sexual discrimination with a second example. Imagine an average-sized man and an average-sized woman who are both applying to the job of firefighter, where there is only one open position. Unless he’s completely incompetent, the man would generally be the preferred choice. Why? When comparing a male and female’s bodies, the difference in size and muscle mass are obvious. Unless a man is considerably smaller than average, he will have an easier time carrying a man out of a burning building than a woman will. The decision to hire the man is not sexist, it’s purely based on a clinical observation of who would be more suited for the job. Specific jobs, such as firefighting, which requires strength and endurance, require people with specific physical aspects. Men, women, whites, blacks, smaller or larger people, disabled, fully functioning…etc.

Discrimination, meaning “recognition and understanding of the difference between one thing and another.” is good. Without it the firefighter who rescues you may be unable to carry you out of the burning building. Before immediately assuming someone is a racist jerk, take a moment to understand the difference between the two definitions and see if there is a reason they are catching a ride with one man or the other.

Geography of Religion Wk 7

The Muslim Era and Sikhism

  • Incursions from the West brought Muslims into India. (7th century –>)
  • Muslim rule dominated Northern India by the 16th century=Great Mughal Empire
  • GME early 18th century –> relied on a intimate knowledge of Hindu culture and patronage of Hindu temples even though there was as Islamic ideaology
  • Muslim and Hindu interaction bred Sikhism
  • Sikhism has 10 gurus (holy men) who were alive sometime between the 15th-18th centuries
  • Their influence is not only religious but also political (Punjab region)
  • (17th cent.) Muslim leaders began driving Sikh leaders from villages and into the Himalayan foothills because they were becoming a threat
  • After several generations they rose, and led by Ranjit Singh, claimed Punjab as a Sikh kingdom
  • Today, Sikhs still maintain a significant political and religious power in Punjab, which has been declared a state within the nation of India
  • 1984 the government of Indira Gandhi and the Sikhs erupted in violence
  • The Sikhs’ most holy shrine, The Golden Temple of Amritsar, was attacked to flush out a group of insurgents and holy men
  • Seven months later Indira Gandhi was assassinated in retribution

Geography of Religion Wk 6

  • Battle among tribal warlord. Upper reaches of Ganges during first millennium BC
  • Pandavas vs. Kauravas rival factions w/in one fam.
  • 18-day war
  • Young warrior of Pandavas, Arjuna refused to fight because of the knowledge that he would be facing family and friends on the battlefield
  • Krishna, his charioteer, suddenly revealed himself as a divine being and encouraged Arjuna to fight.
  • The significance of this is that it forms the poetry of the Bhagavad Gita, one of the most popular holy books of Hinduism. The Bhagavad Gita is just one of the 100,000 verses in the Mahabharata
  • Annnndddd I don’t want to write any more so bye

US Hist. Lecture #23

Political Crisis of the 1850s Pt. II

  • Yes I know I’m not supposed to do bullet points. Ill change it later fine fine fine
  • US becoming HUGE amount of territory–organize? access? “Blundering Generation”
  • Could Civil war have been avoided??
  • North hated the “slave power” of the South while the South resented the “Northern aggression.” (North wasn’t worried about the plight of the slaves though. Just didn’t want them to take white people’s land)
  • 1856 election . Democrat James Buchanan won. The democrat party was the truly national party at the time
  • People blame Buchanan for losing the Union but actually he didn’t. He still had a union of 7 states. Abe Lincoln was the one who lost the Union actually
  • 1858 senatorial race. Lincoln vs. Douglas debates. Lincoln is seen as a moderate and was not interested at all in saving the union. Just wanted to re-create one
  • John Brown 1859 Tried to lead a slave rebellion. Was getting money from a “secret 6” and planned to storm an arsenal to arm the slaves but no slaves showed up to join his rebellion. He was wounded, arrested, and put on trial. (Pretty sure he was executed.)
  • The North actually considered him a martyr for abolitionism though

CWP WK 7

Minimum wage :(

Dad was listening to a podcast about minimum wage in the car. Here’s the gist:

Everyone thinks minimum wage is great. Why wouldn’t it be? The higher the minimum wage, the more money everyone gets paid and everyone is happy. Rigggghhhhhhtttt?

The very presence of minimum wage directly impacts employers. If you need to hire 3 employees to keep your business going but can only afford to pay each an amount under the minimum wage, your business will fail. Not only does this effect the business owner, but the employees as well. Now where 3 employees might have been hired, no spaces are available for anyone to work. It’s as simple as that.

Now for any objections…? “Those employees need minimum wage to get enough money to survive.” Minimum wage jobs such as fast food are not meant for any employee to spend their entire life working at.  Maybe while attending college, but the entire goal of college is to transfer to a much more financially stable job.

There’s more to the argument but I’m tired and I can’t think. Besides, no one is going to ever read this.

US History Lecture #21

Abolitionism

  • American Revolution: slavery attacked
  • In northern states, slavery eliminated very quickly
  • Southern states decided to adopt gradual emancipation laws
  • Prime example 1799 “beginning next year on 4th of July anyone born into slavery in New York will be free when 18 if female and 21 if male”
  • Took a long time but it did end as a direct consequence of these acts
  • Idea that if blacks were freed there would be a race war where one race would be exterminated
  • 1831: what to do after the emancipation?
  • “Colonization” send away all free black people
  • American Colonization Society (James Madison, Henry Clay, John Tyler, Abraham Lincoln, and others)
  • How to transport the people? Where to send them?
  • Liberia was an ideal place apparently
  • Compensating masters, transporting people, and obtaining land would all be too expensive so colonization was not going to happen
  • (1832) After this was given up on, people decided to not free the slaves and just not talk about it so as to not encourage anyone
  • Fear that slaves would come back to wreak vengeance upon former masters

 

 

Geography of Religion Wk 5

The Birth of Jainism and Buddhism

  • 600 BC Vardhamana born in a small town north of the Ganges
  • Reached spiritual enlightenment, became a holy man, and walked barefoot through Northeast and Central India teaching his beleifs
  • Given the name Mahavira “great hero”
  • Taught: self-discipline, meditation, vegetarianism, renunciation of worldly goods, and nonviolence
  • Became a religion called Jainism. Practiced by Jains who believe that Mahavira was the 24th in a line of tirthankaras who form the bridge between our world and spiritual enlightenment
  • No supreme deity but many tirthankaras and spiritual deities and the mother goddess Ambika
  •  A hundred years after Mahavira, Siddhartha Gautama left his home as well to seek spiritual enlightenment
  • After years of meditation, he achieved spiritual enlightenment and basically did the same thing as Mahavira
  • His teachings gave rise to the new religion of Buddhism (discussed in the next chapter)