Category Archives: US History

US History^2 Lecture #4

Spanish-American War

  • 1890s. Conflicts between US, Spain, and Cuba (under Spanish rule)
  • First contributing factor “Large Policy” –based on fact that US producing goods in huge abundance. Producing too much. to produce less, they would employ less people, therefore greater unemployment, therefore no money to buy the lesser goods being produced. US needed overseas markets to “unload excess production”
  • It was thought US navy would be needed to help facilitate trade. Culling and Naval stations in Pacific also thought to be necessary (aim to get hold of Asian specifically Chinese markets)
  • Large Navy needed for Large Policy
  • Part of Large Policy was implemented in Hawaii but pres. Grover Cleveland resisted–favored anti-imperialist position
  • Hawaiian Queen deposed and Hawaii was annexed to US eventually but not right now
  • CUBA 10 years war 1868-1878 resistance to Spanish authorities
  • 1895 another uprising in Cuba. Rebels using terrorist methods
  • Yellow journalism sensationalists events
  • Americans didn’t hear about this accurately. Saw it like George Washington fighting against the Brits for freedom
  • Dalome letter written by Spanish Ambassador said Pres. McKinley was weak and bidder for approval of crowd
  • WAR
  • Philippines naval battle over in a day. Land war in Cuba more prolonged but only a few months so pretty brief
  • at end of war after paying a sum to Spain, US acquired Guam Puerto Rico and Philippines and got some powers over Cuba
  • mid 1898 during war Hawaii acquisition becomes irresistable
  • Philippines outraged by US governing them and this challenged the idea of why the US was formed–freedom

US History Lecture #28

North Over South: Recreating the Union, Part II

  • General end date for reconstruction 1877 but arbitrary–federal gov promised to withdraw troops from the South
  • West and North as well as South
  • Republican party had no check on dominance
  • 1866 crush democrats in election
  • still remaking the US. The idea has been around since the reconstruction
  • 1867 republicans pass first reconstruction act
  • congress kicked southern states out of the union even though they said that it was illegal and not possible for south to succeed from the union
  • Tennessee was the only state that stayed in the union (placed under Marshall law and suspended civil courts)
  • “conquered provinces” now
  • north doesn’t care about constitution. just remaking the union and seriously making south suffer BTW
  • Black majorities in South in terms of voting majority
  • republicans now trying to get rid of Johnson (first impeached cuz he broke a law that congress passed)
  • (he had been vetoing congresses acts)
  • later he was vindicated by the admission that the trial was just a witch hunt
  • but at the time, republicans were just going wild
  • most egregious violation of the constitution at the time was the 14th amendment
  • ratified 1868–former confederate states required to ratify it
  • said states no longer have control over citizenship
  • Increase in black political participation 1868-1871
  • misconception about Ku Klux Klan
  • went after scalawags. white southerners and white people who had moved to south and were enforcing south reconstruction

US Hist. Lecture #23

Political Crisis of the 1850s Pt. II

  • Yes I know I’m not supposed to do bullet points. Ill change it later fine fine fine
  • US becoming HUGE amount of territory–organize? access? “Blundering Generation”
  • Could Civil war have been avoided??
  • North hated the “slave power” of the South while the South resented the “Northern aggression.” (North wasn’t worried about the plight of the slaves though. Just didn’t want them to take white people’s land)
  • 1856 election . Democrat James Buchanan won. The democrat party was the truly national party at the time
  • People blame Buchanan for losing the Union but actually he didn’t. He still had a union of 7 states. Abe Lincoln was the one who lost the Union actually
  • 1858 senatorial race. Lincoln vs. Douglas debates. Lincoln is seen as a moderate and was not interested at all in saving the union. Just wanted to re-create one
  • John Brown 1859 Tried to lead a slave rebellion. Was getting money from a “secret 6” and planned to storm an arsenal to arm the slaves but no slaves showed up to join his rebellion. He was wounded, arrested, and put on trial. (Pretty sure he was executed.)
  • The North actually considered him a martyr for abolitionism though

US History Lecture #21

Abolitionism

  • American Revolution: slavery attacked
  • In northern states, slavery eliminated very quickly
  • Southern states decided to adopt gradual emancipation laws
  • Prime example 1799 “beginning next year on 4th of July anyone born into slavery in New York will be free when 18 if female and 21 if male”
  • Took a long time but it did end as a direct consequence of these acts
  • Idea that if blacks were freed there would be a race war where one race would be exterminated
  • 1831: what to do after the emancipation?
  • “Colonization” send away all free black people
  • American Colonization Society (James Madison, Henry Clay, John Tyler, Abraham Lincoln, and others)
  • How to transport the people? Where to send them?
  • Liberia was an ideal place apparently
  • Compensating masters, transporting people, and obtaining land would all be too expensive so colonization was not going to happen
  • (1832) After this was given up on, people decided to not free the slaves and just not talk about it so as to not encourage anyone
  • Fear that slaves would come back to wreak vengeance upon former masters

 

 

US History Lecture #18

The Age of Jackson, II: Tyler, Polk, and the War with Mexico, Part I

  • Harrison 1843 elected decided to give longest inaugural address in history
  • Raining, very cold, no coat. Caught cold–pneumonia
  • First time in history a sitting president has died
  • Tyler took over and served his entire term without a vice president
  • He’s a true American Wig
  • Wig party: oppositional party. Anti-monarch centralist party.
  • Tyler starts vetoing all the Wig party legislation and they can’t believe their own guy would do that
  • Everything that burdens all and benefits a few he just vetoes
  • Tyler’s entire cabinet resigns when he won’t do whatever they want
  • Daniel Webster hung out for a bit but then left
  • So now Tyler can put his own buddies in
  • And that’s it for now folks

US History 18

US History Lecture #15

**Outline**

  • 3 consecutive VA republican presidents: jefferson, madison, and monroe
  • other primanant VA: Cheif justice marshall, justice blair, majority learder randolph, majority leader guiles
  • Jefferson’s first inaugural “we are all republicans, we are all federalists.” we can rely on the militia in the first instance. we must cut spending and taxes. “peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nation entangling alliances with none.
  • Lousiana purchase (1803)
  • Yazoo Scandal–Quid Schism
  • Embargo
  • War of 1812–conquer canada-foiled in east, americans take York (Toronto) -end impressment -army feeble: navy successful (on small scale)
  • British take DC–monroe on horseback, alone. Bladensburg races. burn capitol, white house, executive buildings, library of congress. Dolley Madison and the Stuart washington portrait
  • Treaty of Ghent, 1814 Battle of New Orleans–British defeat. Jackson America’s hero
  • Results: debt. jackson. “independence”
  • spelling independence correctly for once
  • 2nd bank of US
  • Jefferson, Madison, and the Court–Jefferson v. the Midnight Judges -repeal of the judiciary act of 1801 -marbury v. Madison (1803) – – correct – – but
  • Chase Impeachment–grounds. randolph out on a limb, makes mistakes (?) Senate aquittal, Jefferson denigrates impeachment mechanism
  • Burr’s treason Trial–hazy conspiracy. Gen. Wilkinson. Jefferson’s refusal to be subpoenaed. Marshall’s instructions to the jury. Aquittal.
  • Other landmarks–Fletcher v. Peck (1810) Martin v. Hunter’s Lessee (1816) McColloch v. Maryland (1819) But Barron v. Baltimore (1833)
  • Bonus Bill Veto Message (1817)

US History Wk 4

Philadelphia Convention: Virginia’s Proposition (Pt. 2/2)

  • Congressional veto of state laws
  • voted down repeatedly
  • Madison kept bring it up
  • Madison thought new gov would fail in a few years since they didn’t adopt his possibilities
  • commerce and slavery were also issues:
  • federalists called for empowering central gov to tax people through tariff
  • import tax would be easiest tax to administer
  • people from New England were fond of the notion
  • George Mason of Virginia objected
  • Continue reading

US History Wk 3

Philadelphia Convention: Virginia’s Proposition (Pt. 1/2)

The Philadelphia Convention was held May-Sept. 1787, where delegates from each state of the U.S. drafted our current federal constitution. The First thing the convention did was to elect George Washington as president of the convention. The second thing they did was to kick out the reporters and swear all of the people present to secrecy until the convention was adjourned. The third thing that happened was Governor Randolph presenting his proposal in front of the entire convention. Prior to the Convention’s start, the experienced James Madison had gathered together some like-minded delegates so they could form a proposition that would be presented to the Convention at the start of the meeting, therefore forcing the delegates to spend most of their time discussing the said proposal. The Articles of Confederation were based on a federal government model (one government to serve the parts) as opposed to a national model (many parts to serve the whole). The plan that Gov. Randolph presented was to form a new constitution that would be amendable without congresses permission. The central government would be allowed to admit new states without asking for old states permission. The Government could tax itself without asking for the state’s permission first. There would also be a national legislative branch, a national judicial branch, and an executive branch. The new constitution would hand a lot of power to the new central government and was objected to immediately by many less-populated states because they would posses much less power than more populated states. Tune in next week to see what the Philadelphia Convention decides.

US History Wk 2

(They only said I had to write a paper, not that it had to be good)

After the Boston Tea Party, parliament decided to adopt a suit of acts called the Coercive Acts in 1774. One of the Coercive Acts stated that the upper house would now be selected by a king-appointed governor instead of the people as had been done previously.  Another of the acts closed port of Boston. Yet another act allowed soldiers to freely grab private residences to live in. The ultimate conflict resulted from american resistance to these acts.

April 19, 1775, a party of British solders went up to Concord to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock but Paul Revere had already warned people. Stuff happened. After the conflict where several Americans were killed, the British were forced to retreat to Boston.

About a month later, the second Continental Congress was called where alliances were formed, George Washington was named commander and chief of a force of common citizens, and a point decimal system was established for money to replace the confusing and complicated British system. 8 grains of sliver totaled a dollar which explains why a quarter is sometimes called a 2 bit piece.

August 1775, King George issued a royal proclamation that said something along the lines of, “anyone who resists parliamentary policy in North America was in rebellion and must be brought to justice.” The Colonials hoped in vain that their parliamentary allies may win the argument in favor of fairness for the colonies. Finally on July 4 1776 the colonies abandoned that sinking ship and declared independence. By 1783 the fighting had completely ceased.

US History Wk 1

We can clearly see that the South had a very different culture from the North in Colonial times. The Cavalier, Celtic, and South African cultures dominated in the South while the Puritans and Quakers resided primarily in the North. Today, we’re gonna talk a bit about Cavalier culture. Land and status were everything in cavalier society. Their ultimate goal in North America was to re-create the aristocratic style that they had in England. The famous southern accent was actually the people hanging onto the old English language. In fact, Shakespeare probably would’ve had a southern accent, NOT the Elizabethan accent we all imagine him having. Marriage between the Cavaliers was strictly orthodox christian.  The standard age for marriage was anywhere from 18-20  for girls and 25-30 for boys. There was a heavy emphasis on keeping wealth and land in the family, which resulted in a lot of intermarriage. Cavalier society was extremely male dominated. Girls weren’t allowed to do much but also were not expected to do much. Guys on the other hand had to really step their game up, learn how to effectively run a household, do their part in society, be skilled in all things manly, and yet still be a gentleman at the same time with refined dancing skills and manners. In Southern society, you went to church because you were absolutely devoted to it. Mass consisted of a few very short lectures and an after service feast. Speaking of feasting, the Cavilers had great food; fresh veggies and fruits and lots of beef. Everything was fried and flavored subtly but with lots of spices.