(2) What was the basic message of the utopian socialists?
Utopian socialists constructed blueprints for their own societies. They thought competition in business was inefficient and unnecessary. If only society would agree to a single plan (their plan), then their community would be prosperous and flowery. However, the more planning they heaped upon small test communities, the faster they crumbled. Free speech was forbidden, all goods were obviously shared equally no matter who did the work, and private property was nonexistent. The people in these small socialist groups quickly learned to despise the socialist plan–as should we all.
(3) What were the characteristics of neoclassicism? Give one example of neoclassicism and show how it embodies at least one of these characteristics.
Neoclassicism is 18th century cultural movement that emphasizes reason, order, serenity, and proper decorum. Paintings were balanced and symmetrical. Classic themes such as those in Rome predominated. Sculptures were filled with “noble simplicity.” In literature, things were done just so and following the rules exactly. Grammar books for instance were published and read for pleasure so as for everyone to know exactly how to write.
(4) What were the characteristics of Romanticism? Give one example of Romanticism and show how it embodies at least one of these characteristics.
Romanticism contrasts sharply with neoclassicism. Instead of a heavy leaning towards following the rules, here is an emphasis on individual expression. People were fascinated with far away, strange, or morbid places and religion and spirituality. Traditional religion still held some popularity with the people, but not because of the logic behind the arguments for or against, but because they felt the need to follow a certain path. Composers would tell their audiences exactly what story their music told instead of allowing them to interpret it however they wished as before.