West Civ^2 Bullet Points!? (L115)

(2) What are the values of Modernism that we see reflected across different fields, and how do they represent a departure from neoclassicism and the Enlightenment?

  • Modernism is a philosophy that lasted from late 19th century to late 20th century Western Europe and was applied to literature, art, music, philosophy, and science.
  • Two of the most famous people from this time were Sigmund Freud, the psychoanalyst, and Friedrich Nietzsche, the loopy philologist.
  • Both lived from the mid-late 1800s to the mid 1900s
  • Freud believed that people’s biggest desire in life was to satisfy their aggressiveness by taking it out on others.
  • He was not a religious man and thought that the sole purpose of religion was to glue peoples together.
  • However, Freud is perhaps most famous for his theory that dreams revealed the truth about people.
  • Nietzsche on the other hand was heavily influenced by contemporary progressive writers and coined the famous phrase “God is Dead” due to his belief that Christianity was essentially slavery and people should be free in their beliefs instead of chained to a fixed set of morals.
  • Modernism music by artists such as Igor Stravinsky and Arnold Schoenberg is to this day famous for its atonality, and literature by authors such as Kafka revolved around absurd realities.
  • In fact, Kafkaesque has become a real word that describes abnormal situations.
  • Visual art styles such as cubism and impressionism were invented.
  • About two generations (18th century) before Modernism came Neoclassicism, a philosophy that preached rules, order, and logic–essentially a re-emphasis of classical Greek and Roman values and culture.
  • Music took the sonata form and perfect examples of composers are Hayden and Mozart.
  • Literature appeared as essays, letters, fables, and satires
  • The French artist David painted the “Oath of the Horatii” where Roman soldiers took vows on their blades in a typical Roman Basilica, which sums up this period precisely.
  • Essentially, Modernism is the rebellious teenage child of Neoclassicism

(3) What factors contributed to the coming of World War I?

  • As the Ottoman empire crumbled many countries formerly within this empire struggled to gain their independence.
  • The opportunity to seize these lands was impossible for many Western European countries to resist; consequently A-H monopolized much of the Balkans, which bred hate and resentment.
  • In 1914, Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist, and A-H declared war against Serbia a month after the assassination took place.
  • Kaiser Wilhelm, the German Emperor, had pushed A-H into was because he didn’t believe Russia would ally with France and foolishly thought his own country safe from aggression.
  • However, Russia began mobilizing to defend Serbia and Germany began to sweat.
  • Because of a secret alliance from 1882 between Germany, A-H, and Italy, Germany declared war on Russia and France and then proceeded to invade Belgium in 1914.
  • Offended by the Belgian invasion, Britain entered the war.
  • In 1917 the U.S. finally decided to get involved and entered the war as well.

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