Another 2 hours of work for a 5 second GIF but it was WORTH IT! I’ve completely forgotten the name of this lock but who cares–it’s so cool!
*DISCLAIMER* We didn’t have time to do full paragraphs so this is our weekly paper compromise. :/
(1) What are the primary differences discussed in this week’s videos between Marxism and Marxism-Leninism?
- I. (Background) Karl Marx = German Philosopher-type guy espoused economic theory “Marxism” late 19th century
- II. (Topic) Russian socialists <3 Marxism and modified it after
- #1. Marxism –> naturally via people
- #2. M-Leninism –> workers too stupid to bring about
- #3. Marx –> state would wither and die
- #4. Lenin –> state got even stronger
- #5. Marx –> everyone would have an abundance of food
- #6. Lenin –> starved the people through deceit
- #7. Marx–> ppl could do whatever they wanted
- #8. Lenin –> forced ppl to work in specific jobs
- #9. Marx –> no violence
- #10. Lenin –> public executions, forcibly seized property, ran out intellectuals
- III. (Clincher) Leninism and Marxism totally different and just complete control via state
*DISCLAIMER* We didn’t have time to do full paragraphs so this is our weekly paper compromise. :/
(1) How did a political assassination in June 1914 lead to a world war? Why did each of the major countries intervene?
- I. (Background) Ottoman empire crumbling, countries breaking free –> individual nations
- II. (Topic) Serbia agitated under A-H –> assassinated Archduke Ferdinand 1914
- #1. A demands punishment, Serbia refuses, A threatens war
- #2. Russia + Serbia, Germany + Austria (against R, S, & France)
- #3. Italy + G & A-H, but later
- #4. Germany invades Belgium –> France
- #5. England decides to teach Germany lesson
- #6. England hunger blockades against all Germany
- #7. Germany retaliates w/ submarine warfare
- #8. U.S. (Woodrow Wilson) anglophile =
- #9. Unreasonable about “peaceful” Americans on Warships –> <– Europe
- #10. Americans killed, Wilson –> war/Germany
- III. (Clincher) Nationalistic fervor = land grabbing & assassinations = protect own territory (w/ help of major ally) = WWI
(2) What are the values of Modernism that we see reflected across different fields, and how do they represent a departure from neoclassicism and the Enlightenment?
- Modernism is a philosophy that lasted from late 19th century to late 20th century Western Europe and was applied to literature, art, music, philosophy, and science.
- Two of the most famous people from this time were Sigmund Freud, the psychoanalyst, and Friedrich Nietzsche, the loopy philologist.
- Both lived from the mid-late 1800s to the mid 1900s
- Freud believed that people’s biggest desire in life was to satisfy their aggressiveness by taking it out on others.
- He was not a religious man and thought that the sole purpose of religion was to glue peoples together.
- However, Freud is perhaps most famous for his theory that dreams revealed the truth about people.
- Nietzsche on the other hand was heavily influenced by contemporary progressive writers and coined the famous phrase “God is Dead” due to his belief that Christianity was essentially slavery and people should be free in their beliefs instead of chained to a fixed set of morals.
- Modernism music by artists such as Igor Stravinsky and Arnold Schoenberg is to this day famous for its atonality, and literature by authors such as Kafka revolved around absurd realities.
- In fact, Kafkaesque has become a real word that describes abnormal situations.
- Visual art styles such as cubism and impressionism were invented.
- About two generations (18th century) before Modernism came Neoclassicism, a philosophy that preached rules, order, and logic–essentially a re-emphasis of classical Greek and Roman values and culture.
- Music took the sonata form and perfect examples of composers are Hayden and Mozart.
- Literature appeared as essays, letters, fables, and satires
- The French artist David painted the “Oath of the Horatii” where Roman soldiers took vows on their blades in a typical Roman Basilica, which sums up this period precisely.
- Essentially, Modernism is the rebellious teenage child of Neoclassicism
(1) What arguments does Gladstone make in favor of Home Rule for Ireland?
During the 1800s, the overwhelmingly Catholic Ireland was ruled over by the Majorly Protestant England. While most political restrictions held over Ireland were lifted early in the century, Catholics were still required to pay a tax to the Protestant Church. William Gladstone, British Prime Minister, began protesting this unfair taxation in 1886, claiming that it was morally incorrect to subject the people in such a way. He also argued that Ireland would never accept British rule and rebel constantly unless the British would allow the Irish to govern themselves, but was quickly shut down. Despite his failure to free the Catholic Irish from all restrictions, he was praised as a statesman for pursuing the rights of others even when the odds were stacked against him. Continue reading
There’s this book I like most of the time called A Court of Thorns and Roses and if you go onto pinterest and look up “ACOTAR” you will find tons of imaginary scenarios between the characters. If you’ve never read the book, then just admire my art skills, because this will not make any sense to you. But if you have read the book, I hope you enjoy it and laugh your head off when you see it late at night like I did (everything is funny at night.) BTW in case you can’t tell ACOTAR fans, it’s Nesta and Cassian aka. the second best couple who is not a couple. <3
(1) What were the key steps in the process of Italian unification?
Up until the 19th century, Italy consisted of a series of independent states. Of all the states involved in the unification of Italy, Piedmont was the most influential. Two prominent statesmen, Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi, had been attempting to unify Italy for a long time, but the Prime Minister of Piedmont, Count Camillo di Cavour, played the biggest role during the 1850s. During the Crimean war, he sent 15,000 troops to anti-Russian side in an effort to gain France as an ally when time came to oust the Austrian overlords of Italy. Napoleon III supported Cavour with the condition that they would only fight as long as Austria would fire the first shot. After many failed attempts to provoke Austria into attacking, Napoleon finally gave up and began to demobilize his army. Viewing the retreating French army as an easy target to finally be rid of once and for all, Austria finally lashed out. But, the French armies were victorious and Lombardy was added to the new unified states that made up Italy at that time. However, the unification of Italy was not yet complete! Garibaldi the famous general, entered the scene again and conquered the southern part of Italy, including various Vatican territories, for Piedmont, who was ruling over the states forming Italy. In 1861 Cavour died, never seeing the full unification of Italy to which he had devoted his life. Nevertheless, one by one, more states were conquered, with the exception of the Vatican which remained independent, forming the Italy of today in 1870. Continue reading
I’m designing a graphic novel series (It would be SO cool if I could publish it!) and these are some character concepts for the prequel story. (Yes, I have to make everything harder than it already is–because a normal graphic novel series isn’t enough work :( ) The Prequel will be set somewhere from 1933-1950s America and focused on witches and the pagan religion as interpreted per my research. Basically think “urban witches throughout history” and “Celtic gods” if you still don’t get what the story will be about. The prequel has only 2 main characters as opposed to the 3-4 in the main series and one of them is in the character ref sheet below. The other image is me trying to figure out how to represent the Great Mother (Also called the “Goddess.” Look it up.) because dang it there are way too many possibilities! Should I go really traditional Viking or more Greek or Egyptian sky goddess? Help an artist out and give me opinions! (Criteria via internet: a moon goddess and mother nature blend.)
(1) Discuss two weak points in the views of Karl Marx, and explain what’s wrong with them.
- The first belief of Karl Marx that does not hold up under close inspection is that if the division of labor is removed, out would pour artistic talent and skill into the world. But why would you attempt to specialize in perhaps 20 fields when you could work in 19 of them as hobbies and be exceptional at one in particular? If everyone decided that they wanted to focus on multiple jobs instead of one, quality health care for example would vanish. No one would specialize in the medical field anymore and the death rate would shoot back to the middle ages. Aren’t we all fond of comfy couches to lounge on in our spare time? They would vanish as well. With no one dedicated to providing a quality couch, every one you bought would be so lacking in quality and durability that it would be a waste of money to even own a couch anymore. Without specialists in every field that you can think of, quality products and care would cease to exist (especially in industries such as plumbing.)
- The second paper-thin belief of Karl Marx is that all exchanged items must be equal. This is utterly and absurdly false because the entire reason people exchange objects is because they are unequal. For instance let’s say Fred has a new pen and Jane has a toy car and they would like to exchange the two items. If the items were equal. both people would be satisfied with what they have and not want what the other has instead. Fred desires the toy car more than he likes his pen and vice versa with Jane, making the two items unequal in both of their eyes and leaving both satisfied after the exchange. This simple example can be applied to any two exchanged items and completely trashes Marx’s belief.
(1) What happened in France during the Revolution of 1830?
The 1820’s in France was a fairly prosperous time. However, as it came to an end, people began to complain about their many grievances that had been easily placated with the comfortable living of the 1820’s. Rioters and Political protesters filled the streets. Charles X, the new king, clamped down on the already restricted free press and reduced the limit of those allowed to vote to only 23,000 citizens. The Ultras (supporters of the king) attempted to portray those against the king as the descendants of the Reign of Terror. Animosity only grew as a result. Charles X dismissed the Chamber of Deputies (the main legislative body of France.) Eventually, Charles was deposed and replaced by a more moderate, middle-class-minded type of king. Meanwhile artisans were breaking machines and demanding that the government shut down labor saving machinery (idiots) because this newfangled machinery was taking their jobs away. Louis Philippe–the new king–was not sympathetic to their plight and demanded that the riots halt. The 1820’s clashed sharply with the 1830’s and if the Revolutions of 1830 told me anything, it is that the absence of a comfortable life in the wake of prosperity can stir up people quicker than anything else. Continue reading